As regular as clockwork, some people still get caught out by the clocks going back in autumn and forward again in spring – despite it happening every year.
Your smartphone should update the time automatically, but when the fateful day arrives you’ll still need to go adjust any analogue timepieces you have.
The UK is currently operating on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which means the next time the clocks change they go forward we will move into British Summer Time (BST).
Here’s everything you need to know about when the clocks are changing in 2022 and why we have British Summer Time.
When do the clocks change?
The clocks always go forward on the final Sunday of March, which means in 2022 they will change on Sunday 27 Marcha day earlier than last year.
By switching to BST we will get more daylight in the evening, but sadly your Sunday morning lie-in will be cut short by an hour on the day itself.
In autumn the clocks then always go back again on the final Sunday of October, which means this year they will change on 30 October.
This signals the end of BST, or Daylight Saving Time (DST), and means the UK reverts to GMT until the spring, the standard time zone against which all others in the world are referenced.
That change gives us an extra precious hour of daylight in the dark autumn and winter months, with the added bonus of an extra hour in bed on the Sunday morning when the clocks change.
What time do the clocks go forward?
The clocks always change at the weekend, in the middle of the night, to ensure that there is limited disruption for schools and businesses.
On Sunday 27 March, the clocks will go forward at 1.00am (at which point it will become 2.00am), hence the majority of us losing an hour of sleep.
When the clocks go back on 30 October the change happens at 2.00am (with the time going back to 1.00am), meaning you’ll probably either get a lie in or get up an hour earlier than usual to seize the day.
Why do we have British Summer Time?
The campaign for British Summer Time came about at the beginning of the 20th century. Moving the clocks forward in the summer months would give us darker mornings but lighter, longer evenings.
The idea was proposed in the UK by builder William Willett, says Dr Richard Dunn, senior curator for the History of Science at the Royal Observatory Greenwich.
Willett was “incensed at the ‘waste’ of useful daylight during the summer. Though the sun had been up for hours as he rode his horse through Chislehurst and Petts Wood, people were still asleep in bed”.
British Summer Time was adopted in Britain in 1916 to save fuel and money.
Since then, Britain toyed with moving the clocks a number of times, including bringing them forward two hours ahead of GMT during the Second World War. They were also brought forward for periods in the spring of 1947, in line with fuel shortages.
There was an experiment, between 1968 and 1971, which kept clocks one hour ahead of GMT all year round.
Britain then reverted to our now familiar system of GMT in the winter and summer time in between March and October.
Is there opposition to BST?
Some people have campaigned for British time to be brought in line with other European countries to reduce accidents.
This would make it two hours ahead of GMT in the summer and one hour ahead in the winter.
Errol Taylor, the chief executive of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA), said in 2019: “Clock changes were first introduced in 1916 to reflect the needs of a nation at war. However, our priority now should be the prevention of road accidents that cause serious injury and death.
“We know that the clock change kills people. During the working week, casualty rates peak at 8am and 10am and 3pm and 7pm, with the afternoon peak being higher. Road casualty rates increase with the arrival of darker evenings and worsening weather conditions.
“And it is vulnerable road users – such as children on their way home from school and cyclists – who would experience the most benefit. Anything we can do to bring these rates down has to be worth it.
“While we respect the views of those that want to keep the current system, we must not lose sight of the fact that lives are at stake.”
Others want to forego turning the clocks back in October.
“One of the main reasons against keeping British Summer Time all year round, which would mean not putting the clocks back in October, concerns people in Scotland, where sunrise might not be until as late as 10am,” says Dr Dunn.
“Among other things, this would mean children traveling to and from school in darkness, putting them at greater risk. Lighter mornings in the winter are also better for postal workers and those in construction and farming, who typically begin work much earlier than many others.”